ADHD and schizophrenia: Links, causes, and symptoms (2023)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia are two different disorders that can profoundly affect a person’s life. While they have many differences, they also share some characteristics.

For this reason, some scientists have been looking into a possible link between them.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that involves behavioral symptoms, including inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.

It is a neurodevelopmental disorder, and diagnosis usually takes place before the age of 12 years. Although symptoms tend to improve with age, some people continue to have symptoms as adults.

During childhood, ADHD is more common in males than in females, but the prevalence becomes relatively even in adulthood. It is possible that fewer girls receive a diagnosis because they show symptoms differently, meaning that caregivers or teachers may not notice them.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that, in 2016, about 6.1 million children living in the United States had received a diagnosis of ADHD.

Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health condition that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It involves psychosis and other symptoms, including inattention.

Schizophrenia is slightly more common in males than females. Symptoms often begin between the ages of 16 and 30 years, but it can sometimes appear during childhood.

Around 1 percent of people in the U.S. have schizophrenia, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI).

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Various studies have identified some similarities between ADHD and schizophrenia and a possible overlap.

The conclusions of researchers include the following:

  • People with schizophrenia often have symptoms of other psychiatric disorders, including ADHD, in early adolescence.
  • Children and teenagers with ADHD may be 4.3 times more likely to develop schizophrenia as adults than people without ADHD.
  • Close relatives of people with ADHD may be more likely than second-degree relatives to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia, suggesting that it may have a genetic component.

In 2013, a team of geneticists looking at ADHD in children and schizophrenia in adults found evidence of a “small but significant shared genetic susceptibility.”

The exact causes of ADHD and schizophrenia are not clear, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors may increase the risk of both.

A person with specific genetic features may develop symptoms if they encounter certain triggers, whether this exposure occurs before birth or during childhood and adolescence.

ADHD

Factors that may contribute to ADHD include:

(Video) Study finds link between ADHD medicine and risk of psychosis

  • Genetic features: ADHD can run in families.
  • Environmental factors: Exposure to toxic materials, including as a fetus, may increase the risk.
  • Developmental issues: Problems with the central nervous system at important stages of development may result in ADHD.

Schizophrenia

Factors that may increase a person’s likelihood of developing schizophrenia include:

  • Genetic features: Genetic factors appear to play a role. Having a close family member with schizophrenia may increase the risk.
  • Brain development: Research shows that some individuals with schizophrenia have subtle differences in their brain structure.
  • Neurotransmitters: An imbalance between dopamine and serotonin, the chemical messengers in the brain, may have a connection with schizophrenia. Drugs that alter the levels of these chemicals appear to relieve schizophrenia symptoms.
  • Pregnancy and birth complications: A low birth weight, premature labor, or insufficient oxygen during birth are more likely to have affected people with schizophrenia.

ADHD and schizophrenia

Both conditions involve neurodevelopmental changes and can run in families. However, researchers do not yet know whether the same changes relate to both conditions or to what extent these underlying features overlap.

The risk factors for ADHD and schizophrenia are not the same, but they may overlap. For both conditions, some risk factors may affect a person before birth, while others come into effect during childhood and adolescence.

ADHD

Risk factors for ADHD include:

  • a family history of ADHD or another mental health disorder
  • exposure to certain substances while in the womb
  • a lack of specific nutrients, such as folate, zinc, magnesium, and polyunsaturated acids

Schizophrenia

There is growing evidence that some environmental factors can lead to neurodevelopmental problems that result in schizophrenia.

Possible environmental factors include:

  • exposure to certain substances, such as cannabis or lead, before birth
  • nutritional deficits, including low levels of folic acid and iron
  • rubella or other maternal infections during pregnancy
  • maternal stress during pregnancy
  • infections during childhood and adolescence
  • deficiency in iron and vitamin D resulting in decreased choline during pregnancy
  • an increase in immune system activity due to inflammation or autoimmune disease
  • taking mind-altering drugs as teenagers or young adults

Some researchers have suggested that there may be a link between low birth weight and mental illness, possibly including schizophrenia. However, they have noted that more evidence is necessary to confirm this.

The authors of a 2011 review concluded:

“It appears increasingly likely that a large portion, if not the majority, of schizophrenia cases can be accounted for by interactions between environmental and genetic factors and by other mechanisms involving the subtle interplay between environments and genes.”

ADHD and schizophrenia

Scientists believe that there is an overlap in the factors that can lead to ADHD and schizophrenia.

Genetic factors: A person who has a close relative with schizophrenia may be more likely to develop ADHD. Researchers say that up to 80 percent of cases of schizophrenia and between 60 and 80 percent of cases of ADHD may result from inheritance.

Changes in underlying brain mechanisms: Some neurological factors are common to both conditions.

Environmental influences: Exposure to specific influences before birth and during childhood appears to increase the risk of both conditions.

Shared history: People who have schizophrenia are more likely to have had a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood.

Does ADHD medication lead to schizophrenia?

Some people who use stimulant medication to relieve the symptoms of ADHD go on to experience symptoms of psychosis.

However, it is unclear whether using stimulants to treat ADHD increases the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-type symptoms, specifically psychosis. These symptoms may have appeared without the use of stimulant medication.

Exposure to psychostimulant drugs does appear to increase the risk of psychosis. Psychosis that appears at a younger age is more likely to result from the use of psychostimulant drugs.

However, it remains unclear whether psychosis results from the use of the drugs or whether these individuals were already susceptible to psychosis.

In addition, the type of psychosis that people with ADHD experience tends to be different from that in people with schizophrenia as it involves brief mental changes rather than full hallucinations.

(Video) ADHD & Schizophrenia | Signs of Schizophrenia in ADHD Children

The symptoms of ADHD and schizophrenia are different, but they overlap in the area of inattention.

ADHD

There are three different types of ADHD:

  • inattentive ADHD
  • hyperactive and impulsive ADHD
  • combined inattentive and hyperactive ADHD

Symptoms of inattentiveness include:

  • having a short attention span and getting easily distracted
  • making careless mistakes during activities
  • appearing not to listen
  • being unable to follow instructions and complete tasks
  • having problems with organizing tasks
  • being forgetful or frequently losing things
  • avoiding tasks that require mental effort

Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness include:

  • fidgeting constantly and being unable to sit still
  • being unable to engage quietly in leisure activities
  • lacking concentration
  • talking excessively
  • interrupting other people’s conversations or intruding on their activities
  • being restless
  • running excessively or climbing in inappropriate situations
  • acting without thinking
  • having little or no sense of danger

Not everyone who has ADHD will have hyperactivity as a symptom.

Schizophrenia

Doctors categorize the symptoms of schizophrenia as either positive, negative, or cognitive.

Positive symptoms include:

  • hallucinations
  • delusions, such as believing that the government is pursuing them
  • paranoid thoughts
  • agitated or excessive body movements
  • agitated or inappropriate behavior

Negative symptoms include:

  • social withdrawal
  • not caring about appearance and personal hygiene
  • reduced emotional expression
  • losing interest and motivation
  • trouble concentrating
  • changes in sleep habits
  • feeling unable to leave the house
  • a decrease in conversation and speaking

Cognitive symptoms include:

  • having confused or disorganized thoughts
  • an inability to understand information and make decisions
  • a lack of focus and attention
  • difficulty using learned information immediately

ADHD and schizophrenia

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ADHD and schizophrenia may share some symptoms.

For example, attention problems affect both people with ADHD and people with schizophrenia.

However, some researchers have suggested that the type of inattention involved in ADHD may be different from that in schizophrenia and that the underlying neurological features are also different.

Thought disorders and psychosis can also occur in both schizophrenia and ADHD. People with schizophrenia often experience psychotic episodes, which can involve hallucinations, delusions, and disturbed thoughts.

Psychosis is not typical of ADHD, but around 10 percent of people with this condition experience psychotic symptoms. One theory is that the stimulant drugs that doctors prescribe to treat ADHD may trigger these psychotic symptoms.

Research has shown that some people whose genetic makeup puts them at high risk of schizophrenia will meet the criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD.

Some people with ADHD also have hyperactivity, but this is not a symptom of schizophrenia.

Diagnosis

(Video) Signs of Schizophrenia in Children With ADHD

Doctors use different criteria to diagnose ADHD and schizophrenia.

ADHD

There is no specific test to diagnose ADHD. A doctor will ask the individual about their medical history and symptoms and then conduct a medical examination to rule out other causes. The doctor will compare the symptoms with ADHD criteria and rating scales to make a diagnosis.

Diagnosis usually happens in childhood, often before the age of 12 years.

Schizophrenia

A doctor will ask the individual about their medical history and the symptoms that they are experiencing. They will also ensure that the symptoms are not due to medication, substance abuse, or another medical condition.

The doctor may carry out alcohol and drug screening or imaging studies, such as an MRI or CT scan.

If a doctor or mental health professional suspects schizophrenia, they will perform a psychiatric evaluation and compare the symptoms with diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

According to the NAMI, schizophrenia usually presents in males who are in their late teenage years or early 20s, while the onset tends to occur in females aged about 25–35 years.

ADHD and schizophrenia

A doctor will diagnose both ADHD and schizophrenia by comparing symptoms to those on a list in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).

The DSM-5 classifies schizophrenia and ADHD as completely different conditions. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder, while ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder.

There is no cure for ADHD or schizophrenia, but treatment can help relieve symptoms.

ADHD

Treatment options include:

  • stimulant drugs to boost and balance brain chemical levels
  • nonstimulant medicines, which take longer to work than stimulants but can improve attention, focus, and impulsiveness
  • behavioral therapy to help people manage and change their behavior

Schizophrenia

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Treatment options for managing the symptoms of schizophrenia include medications and psychosocial therapy.

Treatment may include:

Antipsychotic drugs: These aim to manage symptoms by controlling levels of the brain chemical dopamine.

Psychosocial therapy: This combines psychotherapy and social training to provide support, education, and guidance to people with schizophrenia.

Hospitalization: This may be necessary when a person’s symptoms are severe.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): People whose symptoms do not respond to medication may benefit from ECT.

(Video) Dopamine Transporters - ADHD, Bipolar, and Schizophrenia (2 of 2)

Similarities and differences

The treatment options for ADHD and schizophrenia are different. In both cases, doctors aim to manage symptoms rather than cure the condition.

For ADHD, a doctor may prescribe stimulants that increase dopamine levels in the brain. In some people, this type of drug may trigger psychosis.

For schizophrenia, a doctor will prescribe antipsychotic drugs that block the effect of dopamine.

ADHD and schizophrenia are different conditions, but they can occur together, and there may be some overlap between them. Some researchers believe that they share some underlying features. However, exactly how they relate to each other remains unclear.

Both conditions involve inattention, for example, but it is not apparent if this is the same kind of inattention or if it has the same cause.

ADHD tends to start at a younger age, and symptoms often improve with time, although they can continue into adulthood. Some people with ADHD go on to develop symptoms of schizophrenia, including psychosis.

Schizophrenia is usually a long-term condition. Treatment can relieve symptoms and enable many people to live a normal life, but relapse is likely if they do not follow their treatment plan. A person with schizophrenia may also have symptoms of ADHD.

ADHD is far more common than schizophrenia. Many people have ADHD and never develop schizophrenia. There is no evidence that one condition causes the other.

The exact link between the two conditions needs further investigation.

Q:

Is it likely that some people get an ADHD diagnosis when they actually have the early symptoms of schizophrenia?

A:

Probably not. As you can see, the issue is complex, and while there is some overlap in the symptoms, the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 exist to help clinicians diagnose both ADHD and schizophrenia.

(Video) ADHD and Psychosis: What's going on?

Someone may meet the criteria for ADHD in their childhood and then receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia years later, but this does not mean that the first diagnosis was wrong.

It is more likely to indicate that the symptoms of schizophrenia were not present at the time of the ADHD diagnosis.

Timothy J. Legg, PhD, CRNP

Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

FAQs

Are ADHD and schizophrenia linked? ›

Children with ADHD are at a high risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Children and teenagers with ADHD could be 4.3 times more likely to develop schizophrenia as adults than people without ADHD.

How are ADHD and schizophrenia similar? ›

Both ADHD and schizophrenia may affect memory and attention. In some cases, ADHD and schizophrenia may be co-occurring. ADHD may also be paired with other forms of psychosis, which may be caused by specific lifestyle factors.

Can you have ADHD and schizophrenia dopamine? ›

Are the conditions related? Dopamine seems to play a role in the development of both ADHD and schizophrenia. Research studies have indicated a possible relationship between the two conditions. Someone with schizophrenia could also have ADHD, but no evidence suggests that one condition causes the other.

What are the 3 main symptoms of ADHD? ›

The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
  • Inattention: Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention) Difficulty listening to others. ...
  • Impulsivity: Often interrupts others. ...
  • Hyperactivity: Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion.

What other mental illnesses are linked to ADHD? ›

ADHD often occurs with other disorders. Many children with ADHD have other disorders as well as ADHD, such as behavior or conduct problems, learning disorders, anxiety and depression1,2.

What personality disorder is mistaken for schizophrenia? ›

Schizotypal personality disorder can easily be confused with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness in which people lose contact with reality (psychosis).

What disorders can be mistaken for schizophrenia? ›

A few disorders have some of the same symptoms as schizophrenia (schizophrenia spectrum disorders), including:
  • Schizotypal personality disorder. ...
  • Schizoid personality disorder. ...
  • Delusional disorder. ...
  • Schizoaffective disorder. ...
  • Schizophreniform disorder.

Can severe ADHD cause psychosis? ›

A childhood diagnosis of ADHD increased the risk of subsequent psychotic disorder almost 5-fold, independent of sex and diagnostic outcome (schizophrenia versus other psychotic disorder). Early detection (and management) of psychotic disorders in children with an ADHD diagnosis is essential.

Does ADHD cause voices in your head? ›

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a psychotic disorder and does not cause a child to hear voices.

Is ADHD caused by low or high dopamine? ›

As you know, one trademark of ADHD is low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine — a chemical released by nerve cells into the brain. Due to this lack of dopamine, people with ADHD are "chemically wired" to seek more, says John Ratey, M.D., professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Is ADHD a severe mental illness? ›

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate.

What is the biggest symptom of ADHD? ›

In adults, the main features of ADHD may include difficulty paying attention, impulsiveness and restlessness. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Many adults with ADHD aren't aware they have it — they just know that everyday tasks can be a challenge.

What are 2 signs of someone with ADHD? ›

The main signs of hyperactivity and impulsiveness are:
  • being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings.
  • constantly fidgeting.
  • being unable to concentrate on tasks.
  • excessive physical movement.
  • excessive talking.
  • being unable to wait their turn.
  • acting without thinking.
  • interrupting conversations.

What triggers schizophrenia to start? ›

The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. Research suggests a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make a person more likely to develop the condition. Some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode.

What do schizophrenics do all day? ›

People with the disorder may hear voices other people don't hear, or see things that others don't see. They may believe other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. They may sit for hours without moving or talking.

Where does schizophrenia start? ›

Your brain changes and develops a lot during puberty. These shifts might trigger the disease in people who are at risk for it. Some scientists believe it has to do with development in an area of the brain called the frontal cortex.

What mental illness mimics ADHD? ›

Bipolar disorder.

Studies have shown that symptoms of bipolar disorder often overlap with those of ADHD, making it hard to diagnose both of these disorders. Bipolar disorder is marked by mood swings between periods of intense emotional highs and lows.

What organs affect ADHD? ›

ADHD develops when the brain and central nervous system suffer impairments related to the growth and development of the brain's executive functions — such as attention, working memory, planning, organizing, forethought, and impulse control.

Can untreated ADHD lead to mental illness? ›

The negative consequences of untreated ADHD go beyond the inability to focus — some of the consequences can shape the course of your life. For example, you may be unable to maintain healthy relationships,, and succumb to anxiety and depression, all because of an untreated behavioral condition.

What is borderline schizophrenia? ›

Borderline schizophrenia is held to be a valid entity that should be included in the DSM-III. It is a chronic illness that may be associated with many other symptoms but is best characterized by perceptual-cognitive abnormalities. It has a familial distribution and a genetic relationship with schizophrenia.

What does mild schizophrenia look like? ›

You could have: Hallucinations: Seeing or hearing things that aren't there. Delusions: Mistaken but firmly held beliefs that are easy to prove wrong, like thinking you have superpowers, are a famous person, or people are out to get you. Disorganized speech: Using words and sentences that don't make sense to others.

How do psychiatrists diagnose schizophrenia? ›

According to the DSM-5, a schizophrenia diagnosis requires the following: At least two of five main symptoms. Those symptoms, explained above, are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized or incoherent speaking, disorganized or unusual movements and negative symptoms.

Can you predict schizophrenia? ›

A combination of factors can predict schizophrenia in up to 80 percent of youth who are at high risk of developing the illness. These factors include isolating oneself and withdrawing from others, an increase in unusual thoughts and suspicions, and a family history of psychosis.

What is ADHD rage? ›

Problems with emotional dysregulation, in particular with anger reactivity, are very common in people with ADHD. You are not alone in struggling in this area. Anger may indicate an associated mood problem but often is just part of the ADHD. Either way, changes in traditional ADHD treatment can be very helpful.

Do ADHD people go manic? ›

Kathleen, 30, described her manic episodes as “a flurry of uncontrolled energy.” With ADHD, people can feel excited and energetic; manic energy, however, feels scary, uncontrolled, and uncontained. 4. Impulsive or self-destructive behaviors.

Does ADHD cause listening issues? ›

Listening, comprehension and working memory are impaired in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This means children with ADHD are more likely to blurt-out answers in class, speak out of turn, interrupt, and talk too much.

How an ADHD brain thinks? ›

The mind of a person with ADHD is full of the minutiae of life (“Where are my keys?” “Where did I park the car?”), so there is little room left for new thoughts and memories. Something has to be discarded or forgotten to make room for new information. Often the information individuals with ADHD need is in their memory…

Can ADHD meds cause schizophrenia? ›

Does ADHD medication lead to schizophrenia? Some people who use stimulant medication to relieve the symptoms of ADHD go on to experience symptoms of psychosis. However, it is unclear whether using stimulants to treat ADHD increases the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-type symptoms, specifically psychosis.

What chemicals do ADHD brains lack? ›

ADHD brains have low levels of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is linked arm-in-arm with dopamine. Dopamine is the thing that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure center. The ADHD brain has impaired activity in four functional regions of the brain.

Is ADHD caused by a chemical imbalance? ›

What is the cause or basis of ADHD? It is an impulse disorder with genetic components that results from imbalances of neurotransmitters.

Is ADHD a lack of serotonin? ›

The onset of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. A chronic deficit of serotonin (5-HT) at the synapse may trigger symptoms of ADHD.

Why is ADHD so serious? ›

Individuals with ADHD can be very successful in life. However, without identification and proper treatment, ADHD may have serious consequences, including school failure, family stress and disruption, depression, problems with relationships, substance abuse, delinquency, accidental injuries and job failure.

Is ADHD psychiatric or neurological? ›

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder that affects a person's ability to control their behavior and pay attention to tasks.

Is ADHD a brain or mental disorder? ›

ADHD is a brain disorder.

Scientists have shown that there are differences in the brains of children with ADHD and that some of these differences change as a child ages and matures.

What triggers people with ADHD? ›

Common ADHD triggers include: stress. poor sleep. certain foods and additives.

What are the 3 causes of ADHD? ›

Causes of ADHD

In addition to genetics, scientists are studying other possible causes and risk factors including: Brain injury. Exposure to environmental risks (e.g., lead) during pregnancy or at a young age. Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy.

What is the superpower of ADHD? ›

Here are some of the superpowers of the ADHD brain that mental health experts and patients often observe. The ability to take in large amounts of stimuli is useful in the modern, fast-paced work environment. “The non-ADHD brain can't process all the information that it's receiving from its environment,” says Dr.

What does untreated ADHD look like in adults? ›

If a person with ADHD does not receive help, they may have difficulty staying focused and maintaining relationships with other people. They may also experience frustration, low self-esteem, and certain other mental health conditions.

What is the ADHD iceberg? ›

Many mental health professionals use the analogy of an iceberg to describe ADHD because its formation is so similar to how this diagnosis impacts an individual. Because most of the iceberg lies beneath the surface of the water, it illustrates how ADHD symptoms can be similarly hidden.

Why does ADHD make you tired? ›

A 2017 study supported these general findings. Researchers have not conclusively shown why ADHD causes fatigue in some people, but one possible explanation is the condition's effects on dopamine. ADHD can affect dopamine levels, making it more difficult for the body to respond to this important neurotransmitter.

What is the personality of someone with ADHD? ›

Distractibility, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity

People with ADHD have a hard time staying in the moment, predicting the outcomes of their current actions, and learning from past experiences. Their impulsive behavior often makes them risk without thinking. Their hyperactive minds keep switching from one task to another.

How do ADHD people act in relationships? ›

Symptoms of ADHD that can cause relationship problems

If you have ADHD, you may zone out during conversations, which can make your partner feel ignored and devalued. You may also miss important details or mindlessly agree to something you don't remember later, which can be frustrating to your loved one.

Can you prove someone has ADHD? ›

There's no one test. Instead, doctors and psychologists get information about what and how many symptoms you have, when they started, how long they've lasted, and how severe they are. In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, you need to have several symptoms, not just one or two.

› health › adhd › adult-adhd ›

Many adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have never been diagnosed. Get the facts on ADHD symptoms in adults, testing, and treatment.

ADHD symptoms

https://www.nhs.uk › Conditions › Pages › Symptoms
https://www.nhs.uk › Conditions › Pages › Symptoms
This mental health disorder includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.

Can you have high dopamine and ADHD? ›

Experts initially believed that ADHD occurs as a result of low levels of dopamine, but they have since realized that the relationship is a little more complicated. According to the Gulf Bend Center, people with ADHD may have a higher concentration of dopamine transporters in the brain.

Do schizophrenics have more dopamine? ›

Schizophrenia might also be characterized by low dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, but again the evidence is inconclusive. 11 Some studies have found that patients with schizophrenia have elevated levels of dopamine in this region, while others suggest that there are too few dopamine receptors.

What chemical is lacking in ADHD? ›

ADHD was the first disorder found to be the result of a deficiency of a specific neurotransmitter — in this case, norepinephrine — and the first disorder found to respond to medications to correct this underlying deficiency. Like all neurotransmitters, norepinephrine is synthesized within the brain.

What chemicals do ADHD brains lack? ›

ADHD brains have low levels of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is linked arm-in-arm with dopamine. Dopamine is the thing that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure center. The ADHD brain has impaired activity in four functional regions of the brain.

Is ADHD caused by trauma? ›

Trauma and traumatic stress, according to a growing body of research, are closely associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD). Trauma and adversity can alter the brain's architecture, especially in children, which may partly explain their link to the development of ADHD.

What part of the brain is affected by schizophrenia? ›

Schizophrenia is associated with changes in the structure and functioning of a number of key brain systems, including prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions involved in working memory and declarative memory, respectively.

Is serotonin high or low in schizophrenia? ›

Compared with healthy subjects, schizophrenic patients may also have increased levels of serotonin and decreased levels of norepinephrine in the brain.

How do you calm a schizophrenic? ›

Connecting face-to-face with others is the most effective way to calm your nervous system and relieve stress. Since stress can trigger psychosis and make the symptoms of schizophrenia worse, keeping it under control is extremely important.

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